Test Farnswortha-Munsella 100-Hue. Cz. I – podstawy naukowe i możliwości zastosowania
The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test. Part I – Scientific Basis and Use Opportunities
Justyna Wosik1, Jacek Pniewski1, Anna M. Ambroziak1,2,3
1 Wydział Fizyki Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego
Dziekan: prof. dr hab. Teresa Rząca-Urban
2 Samodzielny Publiczny Kliniczny Szpital Okulistyczny w Warszawie
Kierownik: prof. dr hab. n. med. Jerzy Szaflik
3 Zakład Optyki Informacyjnej Instytutu Geofizyki Wydziału Fizyki Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego
Kierownik: dr hab. Rafał Kotyński
Summary: Light is a small part of electromagnetic radiation. The maximum range of visible radiation for the human eye is 360–820 nm. The light is characterized by wave-particle duality and this feature manifests itself in process of absorption of a photon in a retina of the human eye. A photoreceptor cells, which change the light’s energy into electric pulse, are the outer layer of the retina. There are two types of photoreceptor cells: rods, which provide scotopic vision and cones, which are responsibility for photopic and colour vision. There are three types of cones and each has a different absorption spectrum. L-cones have the maximum of the sensitivity function for 557 nm or 552 nm (they have two types of pigment). M-cones have their maximum of sensitivity curve for 530 nm. S-cones have maximum of sensitivity curve for 426 nm. These differences provide colour vision. The final colour impression depends on wavelength, bright and saturation. Also the psychological aspects influence the colour perception. When the light energy is changed into nerve pulse, the process of colour vision is continued in lateral geniculate nucleus. The information from cones are grouped in bipolar hue channels: red-green, blue-yellow and bright channel. It means that the channel is capable of signalling only one colour, not both in the same time. The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test (F-M 100-Hue test) is colour vision test and is used in examination of colour discrimination. It consists of 93 colour caps, which together create the entire colour circle. They are divided into 4 panels. The hues of the caps was selected as to be easily discriminated by people without colour vision defects. The range of uses of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test is very wide, because of its complexity and sensitivity. The main applications of the test are diagnosis colour vision anomalies, following the progression of some diseases, monitoring the effects of drugs on nervous system and recruitment for positions, which require high color vision discrimination. The F-M 100-Hue test is difficult and complex for a patient. As a result, not only ability to colour discrimination has a big influence over the results of the test, but also the psychological factors, skills and age of the patient.
Słowa kluczowe: test Farnswortha-Munsella 100-Hue, widzenie barwne, teoria trójchromatyczności, teoria barw przeciwstawnych.
Keywords: the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test, colour vision, trichromatic theory, opponent colour theory.