Zmiany zachodzące w siatkówce oka związane z wiekiem – fizjologia i patologia
Age-related Retinal Abnormalities – a Physiology and Pathology
Andrzej Gębka, Dorota Raczyńska, Marcin Słomiński, Judyta Aniśko-Słomińska
Klinika Okulistyki Gdańskiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego
Kierownik: prof. dr hab. n. med. Krystyna Raczyńska
Summary: The ageing of human eye tissues is a physiologic process that undergoes pathophysiologic modifications that overlay it. During the life time we observe a continuous regression of vital cells count in the retina. The number of photoreceptors, retinal epithelium cells, ganglion cells drops down in time as well as the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer. One must remember that the ageing of the neighbour tissues (choroid and the vitreous body) has an impact on retina itself. The process of idiopathic epiretinal membranes formation or choroidal blood flow reduction and atrophy disturbes the retinal function.
There are also common civilisation diseases that influence the physiologic ageing of the retina. The systemic hypertension with diabetes mellitus together with its’ eye complications (diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, retinal artery occlusion, macular edema) and age-related macular degeneration impair visual prognosis. The dynamics of age-related eye changes is a very individual and depends on programmed genes expresion that determines the cells activity and life span. The physiologic changes that happen in the eye and especially in the retina, which is post-mitoticly inactive and incapable of self-repair are overlaid by environmental risk factors that speed-up the ageing proces. The genetic properties of the human cells are not modifiable. The only way to slow the physiologic ageing process in the eye being overlaid by the environmental negative factors is to modify one’s habits, life style that challenges our body.
Słowa kluczowe: zwyrodnienie plamki związane z wiekiem, błony nasiatkówkowe, starzejąca się siatkówka, retinopatia, zakrzep żyły, trakcja szklistkowo-siatkówkowa.
Keywords: ageing retina, epiretinal membrane, retinopathy, vitreomacular traction, vein occlusion.