Wydanie 3/2017
str. 43 - 48

Nowoczesne koncepcje w teorii akomodacji i prezbiopii

New Concepts in Accommodation and Presbyopia Theory

Mariusz Spyra 1 , Agnieszka Cisek 2 , Ewelina Cisek 2 , Ewa Mrukwa-Kominek 3

1 Oddział Okulistyki Wojewódzkiego Szpitala im. Zofii z Zamoyskich Tarnowskiej w Tarnobrzegu
2 Katedra Nauk Morfologicznych Wydziału Medycznego Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego
Kierownik: prof. dr hab. n. med. Stanisław Orkisz
3 Klinika Okulistyki Katedry Okulistyki Wydziału Lekarskiego w Katowicach Śląskiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Katowicach
Kierownik: prof. dr hab. n. med. Ewa Mrukwa-Kominek

Summary: Over the last few centuries, the mechanism of accommodation has been the subject of intensive research and analysis – and remains a part of the most unanswered and mysterious subjects in modern ophthalmology. The first attempts of explaining the mechanism of accommodation were undertaken by Descartes and later by T. Young at the turn of 18th and 19th centuries. They were based on the theory of so-called “lens mechanism”. This theory, though the most popular, does not explain all aspects of the changes in how accommodation works at the time of “image focus”, as well as its loss with age. This was one reason for creating many other complementary theories based on a “non–lens mechanism” and on theories of geometry. While all of them are supplementary to the Helmholtz theory, they do not replace it – which only confirms the complexity and incomprehensibility of the mechanism of accommodation. The aging process causes changes and the slow loss of accommodation from early childhood up until the fifth decade of life when its range is insufficient for the correct vision at all distances. All available written publications in regards to the changes in the human eye lens having to do with aging, lens capsule and ciliary body and other structures of the eye just prove that the main role in the progression of presbyopia is played by geometrical and elastic changes in the lens itself. Other factors also affect eye accommodation and its loss with age in both qualitative and quantitative dimensions. Some of them are already partially known, while the others are not. Therefore, the full understanding of presbyopia still remains fully undiscovered.

Słowa kluczowe: akomodacja, starczowzroczność, soczewka, torebka, ciało rzęskowe.

Keywords: accomodation, presbyopia, lens, capsule, ciliary body.