Wydanie 4/2019
str. 18 - 23

Idiopatyczne nadciśnienie śródczaszkowe u dzieci

Pediatric Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

Magdalena Durajczyk, Marta Kirkiewicz, Wojciech Lubiński

II Katedra i Klinika Okulistyki Pomorskiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Szczecinie
Kierownik: prof. dr hab. n. med. Wojciech Lubiński

Summary: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension occurs in both children and adults, however, clinical symptoms and risk factors vary between these populations. There is no racial predisposition to this disease. No genetic cause was presented, although family cases were described. In most children, the first symptom of the disease is headache, and not including this disease in differentiating the causes of headaches may result in a permanent visual loss of varying degrees.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to present the essence of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension in children, to show the differences between symptoms and risk factors in relation to the adult population, and to summarize current medical knowledge about this disease entity.
Material and Methods: Overview of “Pubmed” publications from 2015 to 2019 and literature.
Results: Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension in young children is a separate disease entity and does not necessarily have to be associated with female gender or obesity. Older children and adolescents usually have common demographic characteristics as adults. The opening pressure norms in children are different, they can range from 10.5 to 28 cm H2O, but it should be emphasized that there are factors such as sedation or obesity that can increase the opening pressure by 3 cm H2O. The most common symptom reported by patients is headache, and the most common clinical demonstration is bilateral papilledema. Most children respond well to drug treatment with Acetazolamide and do not require surgery.
Conclusions: In children suspected of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension, multidisciplinary cooperation between ophthalmologists, neurologists and neurosurgeons is necessary not only at the stage of diagnosis but also treatment monitoring. These patients require long-term care. Although Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension has been known for many years, there is still a need for further research to learn about the etiology, identify risk factors, and develop the best diagnostic and therapeutic methods for this condition in children.

Słowa kluczowe: idiopatyczne nadciśnienie śródczaszkowe u dzieci, bóle głowy, obrzęk tarcz nerwów wzrokowych.

Keywords: pediatric idiopathic intracranial hypertension, headache, papilledema.